One of the targets of this study is to achieve electric current standards for metrology.
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If we can generate accurate current based on the clocked transfer of single electrons, it may be possible to complete the so-called metrological quantum triangle of electric standards. The current standards remain to be developed as the final element in addition to the already existing quantum resistance and voltage standards based on semiconductor devices and superconductor devices, respectively.
A silicon nanotransistor with ultra-high charge sensitivity is utilized to read out the voltage noise in an ultra-small dynamic random access memory DRAM and is used to measure the quantized values of fluctuating voltages resulting from the thermal fluctuation in the number of electrons in the charge node of the DRAM.
We analyze the thermal noise and determine how it deviates from that expected from the conventional electric circuit model in the tiny device. It is well known that silicon is categorized into a material with an indirect optical transition and has low efficiency in terms of light emission.
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What is strikingly unique about this research is that the efficiency of the light emission is electrically increased by strengthening the direct optical transition. This is really amazing because it proves that there are still unexplored electronic properties in silicon, which already has a long history of research. In this work, we observe for the first time the crystallization of electrons in a two-dimensional system in a high magnetic field, which is similar to the crystal of a solid-state material in which atoms are regularly allocated in space.
This takes place because electrons tend to avoid each other and find their places in an adequately spaced arrangement. In terms of physics, this corresponds to the situation where the energy of the electron-electron interaction is higher than that of the kinetic motion of electrons.
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Using high quality film grown based on our crystal growth technology was essential in confirming this clean electron system in two dimensions. It is quite different from the standard technology employing lithography often called the top-down approach and is used to construct an ultra-small structure by placing atoms one by one the bottom-up approach.
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- Ultimate Control of Electronic Properties in Low-dimensional Semiconductors.
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When a compound semiconductor is used in which the wave-like nature of electrons is prominent, the shape of the electron wave confined in a quantum-dot structure is clearly observed. This method enables us to control the shape of the electron very precisely since our structure is accurately built using the atom as a building block. Topology is originally a term used in mathematics, but a topological insulator refers to a unique material whose surfaces or edges are electrically conductive, although there are insulators in the internal parts.
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It is theoretically predicted that by using such a low-dimensional electron system at the edge of the material, we can generate a flow of magnetic moments of electron spin called spin current without any flow of electrons as charges. If this is achieved, it may lead to innovative techniques enabling information to be transmitted with almost no energy dissipation.
As indicated above, the research on semiconductors is continuously driven by both scientific and technical interests and is approaching a level where precise control of electrons and atoms will become a reality. These goals have been elusive until now. We believe that we will be able to create innovate semiconductor devices that will surpass existing devices in performance and function by further improving the controllability of electronic properties in low-dimensional semiconductors created through our advanced fabrication and crystal growth technology.
The Physical Science Laboratory at NTT Basic Research Laboratories thus continues to conduct research to develop novel electronics for the future information technology society such as highly accurate and highly sensitive electronics and novel information transmitting and processing devices based on new quantum mechanical phenomena.
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Feature Articles: Frontier Research on Low-dimensional Semiconductor Physics Ultimate Control of Electronic Properties in Low-dimensional Semiconductors Akira Fujiwara Abstract Recent progress in semiconductor technology has enabled the development of structures that are scaled down to the nanometer level with high precision by using highly sophisticated nanofabrication and crystal growth techniques. Introduction Nowadays, we are surrounded by many electronic information processing tools such as personal computers PCs and smartphones that quickly process enormous amounts of information delivered through high-speed networks all over the world.
Electronic properties of low-dimensional semiconductors and their ultimate control One of the key players in the functioning of semiconductor devices is an electron that moves around freely in the semiconductors. Note: There are numerous solid state and quantum mechanics texts that can be used for reference in substitution of the above. You will be allowed to drop your lowest scoring quiz. Final Project: The Final Project will be due near the conclusion of the course.
Physics Condensed Matter Physics.
Low Dimensional Semiconductor Structures
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Rent the eBook. FAQ Policy. About this book Starting with the first transistor in , the world has experienced a technological revolution which has permeated most aspects of modern life, particularly over the last generation.