Authoritative and cutting-edge, Biofuels from Algae: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for novice and experienced researchers who want to learn more about this impactful and developing field. Country of Publication: US Dimensions cm : Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join.
Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. This title is not in stock at the Booktopia Warehouse and needs to be ordered from our supplier. Click here to read more about delivery expectations. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. For tobacco crop, a preliminary greenhouse phase was considered. Authors choose to set tillage, nutrient and irrigation management at the lowest level suggested by the good agricultural practices as explained in paragraph 5.
The use of the rotation with brassica has been considered sufficient and no other pesticides were added in the model. The functional unit is 1 litre of oilseed, system boundaries goes from the seed preservation to the oil production. Data used in this study are both collected directly on the experimental fields and from good agricultural practices GAP vade mecum [ 54 ], data from Ecoinvent Database were also used. The following impact categories have been assessed:.
Biofuels: Methods and Protocols / Edition 1
In order to observe the holistic aim of Life Cycle Assessment, the authors did a special effort trying to include considerations about Land Use impact in their analysis aware of the capital environmental importance of this issue in biofuels sustainability evaluation. The ultimate goal of the project is the sustainable production of biodiesel with a contemporary rescue of marginal soils.
SOM evaluation could help also in GHG emission assessment biofumigant green manure practice already showed important saving in CO eq emissions, calculated with a simplified LCA approach [ 55 ]. In order to have information useful for decision making between different project options, the authors recurred to the Soil Conditioning Index. This tool can predict the consequences of cropping system and tillage practices on the status of soil organic matter in a field[ 56 ].
SCI estimates the combined effect of three variables on trends in organic matter, as a simple weighted average. Where OM accounts for organic material returned to the soil as a function of biomass produced , FO represents tillage and field operation effects and ER is the sorting and removal of surface soil material by sheet, rill and wind erosion. Controlling erosion and building organic matter do not guarantee good soil quality, but in most cropping situations they are prerequisites to improving and protecting soil quality and productivity.
The SCI is a quick way to characterize the organic matter dynamics of a farming system and can help assess good soil management. The following information is needed about the field to calculate the SCI:. If the SCI value is negative, soil organic matter is predicted to be declining under a given production system, and corrective measures should be planned. If the SCI value is zero or positive, soil organic matter is predicted to be stable or increasing. The Soil Conditioning Index represents a support to plan and design conservation crop rotation and residue management practices when low organic matter, surface crusting or erosion are identified as concerns and it helps producers in changes in SOM monitoring or prediction.
The use of this semi-quantitative tool allows running several what-if scenarios which results could be useful to drive decisions taken in the project. Understanding processes that affect soil quality can guide in management decisions and practices that will maintain or improve the soil resource. Appropriate management strategies can significantly reduce the payback period and enhance greenhouse gas benefits associated with biofuel production system.
Results obtained represent the comparison between the two scenarios which don't include yet land use impact category, since further researches are needed on this topic. Results have been normalizedto find which impact categories are the more important. Figure 5 shows that these processes have a great effect on global warming potential, nevertheless, the other impact categories, apart from Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, have anyhow to be considered.
Biofuels: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)
Even if these results have to be considered preliminary, they give the indication about the validity of the use of tobacco as non-edible oilseed crop. The use of oilseeds derived from non-edible crops represents a first step in order to increase the sustainable profile of biodiesel production. Beyond the use of non-edible crops, to face the land use change one of the main criticismsabout biodiesel sustainability the authors propose to set up the non-edible system of production onmarginal soils. According to the state of the art on soil quality properties and indicators, soil organic matter is outstanding, so each phase of production was thought to respect, and if possible improve, this property of the soil.
In this scenario the aim of the production is not only the oilseeds harvest, but also the maintenance and if possible the rescue of the full soil functionality. Taking into account these considerations, the authors analysed which oilseed crop would have been the most suitable, which kind of marginal soil, which the best agronomic practices to follow in this particular situation.
In this publication the authors present a case study which contributes significantly to a wider portfolio of land-use strategy. Tobacco was individuated as the most promising non-edible oilseed crop and the possibility to produce tobacco oilseeds from soils rendered marginal by nematode infestation was analysed.
The authors verified that the green manure of B. In addition weed-suppressive effect of this agronomic practice was shown, avoiding chemical herbicide applications for this agronomic system. The restoring of soil fertility avoiding the fumigant usage, and in the meantime the generation of income from non-edible vegetable oils, assure the ethical, economic and environmental sustainability of the solution. It should be also considered that food production from marginal soils would worsen soil depletion and nematodes infestation. Preliminary results, according to the traditional LCA, confirmed that tobacco is a promising non-edible oilseed crop according to the agronomic practices applied, for those soils rendered marginal by nematode infestation.
This study reports the impact of cover crops and their green manures on the density and damage of root-knot and lesion nematodes to oilseed crops, as well as those of tillage, soil amendments, crop rotation, and cover crops on oilseeds yield and root rot severity. In order to evaluate the sustainability of this scenario through the LCA methodology, it would be relevant to estimate the benefits on soil quality of the agronomic system proposed.
For this reason the authors are studying how to complete the information supplied by the traditional land use indicator. Policy strategies will be needed to increasingly shift abandoned or low biodiversity value marginal lands to this kind of ecologically-friendly practices.
Universal detectors for determination of lipids in biodiesel production
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Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Bucchi Agri Soc. Rispoli Agri Soc. Carvoli Khemistar S. Introduction Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy derives from biological carbon fixation. Among biofuels, biodiesel is one of the main alternative energy sources. Sustainable profile of biofuels Biofuels offer a potentially attractive solution reducing the carbon intensity of the transport sector and addressing energy security concerns. Even if demand for biofuels continues to grow strongly, some biofuels have received considerable criticism as a result of: rising food prices; relatively low greenhouse gas GHG abatement, or even increases in some cases, based on full life-cycle assessments; the continuing need for significant government support and subsidies to ensure that biofuels are economically viable; direct and indirect impacts on land use change and the related greenhouse gas emissions; 2.
First generation biofuels First generation biofuels are based on feedstocks that have traditionally been used as food such as corn or sugar cane for ethanol production and edible vegetable oils and animal fat for biodiesel production. Second generation biofuels Facing the main concerns in first generation biofuels, advanced technical processes have been developing to obtain biofuels, for example ethanol and, in some cases, related alcohols such as butanol by non-edible feedstocks such as cellulose from cell wall of plant cells rather than sugar made from corn or sugar cane.
Third generations biofuels Third generation biofuels, as well as second generation biofuels, are made from non-edible feedstocks, with the advantage that the resulting fuel represents an equivalent replacement produced from sustainable sources for example fast-growing algae or bacteria for gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel. Fourth generations biofuels Fourth generation biofuels are those which result in a negative carbon impact in the atmosphere.
Land use issues 2. Demand for land Since biofuels are derived from biomass conversion, demand for land for agro-fuel production has increased significantly over the past few years. Land Use Change LUC Currently land use is a prerogative of first and second generation biofuels so that land use change should always be taken into account in biofuel sustainability evaluation. Land Use impact assessment for agronomic system In relation to biofuels, land use translates not only into land occupation for a certain time, but also in possible perturbation of soil quality trend.
Legislation on environment and renewable energy Acid rain, air pollution, global warming, ozone depletion, smog, water pollution, and forest destruction are just some of the environmental problems that we currently have to face globally and which require long-term potential actions for sustainable development to achieve solutions. Global agreements To face the global environment issue, in the first World Climate Conference WCC took place although, only in , countries joined for the first time an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC , to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.
Briefly the following are the basic obligations: use all appropriate pollution-prevention measures, namely the best available techniques which produce the least waste, use less hazardous substances, enable the substances generated to be recovered and recycled, etc.
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In addition, the decision to issue a permit must contain a number of specific requirements, including: emission limit values for polluting substances with the exception of greenhouse gases if the emission trading scheme applies ; any soil, water and air protection measures required; waste management measures; measures to be taken in exceptional circumstances leaks, malfunctions, temporary or permanent stoppages, etc.
Soil quality and agronomic management practices in biofuels production The authors are involved in a three years study about the feasibility of sustainable biodiesel production in Italy  -. Soil functions According to the most pragmatic definitions, soil quality depends on its intended uses. Although soils cover a wide range of needs, the following are here summarized as general capabilities of soils [ 19 ]: sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; filtering, buffering, degrading, immobilizing, and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including agricultural, industrial and municipal by-products and atmospheric deposition; storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the biosphere; providing support of socioeconomic structures and protection for archaeological treasures associated with human habitation.
These qualities together determine the capability of soil to function. These properties include soil texture, depth to bedrock, type of clay, CEC, drainage class, and depend on the five soil-forming factors [ 25 ]: climate precipitation and temperature , topography shape of the land , biota native vegetation, animals, and microbes , parent material geologic and organic precursors to the soil , time time that parent material is subject to soil formation processes.
Indicator: Category Name Description Influence on: Physical aggregate stability ability of aggregates to resist disintegration when disruptive forces associated with tillage and water or wind erosion are applied organic matter infiltration root growth resistance to water and wind erosion available water capacity maximum amount of available water for plant uptake.