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Advanced Circuits For Emerging Technologies. The Arrows of Time. Pinterest The world s catalog of ideas. Their idea was to measure the difference in the time of travel of a light beam in two perpendic- ular directions [? The apparatus consists of a sodium light source A shining monochromatic light onto a semi-silvered glass plate B wich splits the incoming beam into two beams continuing in mutually perpendicular perpendicular di- rections to the mirrors C and E, where they reflect back to B.

On returning to B, the are joined into two superimposed beam, D and F. If the time of travel for the beams are equal, the waves will be in phase but if they differ slightly, interference will occur [? It can be shown, that if the apparatus is at rest in the aether, no interference will occur but if it is moving at a velocity v to the right, the times should differ. First, let us calculate the time taken to travel from B to E and back.

Let the time to travel forth be t1 and back t2. As the apparatus moves a distance vti during the time of travel, it can be said that. However, no interference was found - the result of the experiment was zero [? The experiment was repeated many times and other experiments were performed but they all gave the same result [?

The velocity of the earth through the aether could not be detected. The question why Nature would apparently yield up no information about our motion with respect to a hypothetical fundamental frame of reference troubled the minds of some of the best physicists of the nineteenth century. Most of them took the view that the aether existed but that special mechanisms were at work that would undo every phenomenon that would permit a measurement of the absolute velocity v [?

The first fruitful idea for such a mechanism came from Lorentz and Fitzgerald independently in However, this result seemed to be too artificial, designed solely for explaining away the difficulties. He pointed out that the analysis of motion had always been Hence, the total time of horizontal travel th is. The following quote from the paper [? We need to consider that all our judgements in which time plays a part are always judgements of simultaneous events.

This is of course almost trivial but Einstein goes on arguing that the case be- comes problematic if it concerns the relationship between events that occur at different locations in space.

An Introductory Essay

Consider two observers with a clock at points A and B that can both make time-related observations in their surroundings. This can only be done by defining that the time light takes to travel from A to B is equal to the time it takes to travel the way back. This leads to the definition of the following two postulates [? It is striking that a whole new dynamics can be built on these two short statements that will fully resolve the inconsistencies of theory and experiment with an exalted simplicity which could only have been discerned by a genius mind like Einstein.

These transformations were first formulated by Lorentz in , a year. Figure 3: a Space-time diagram showing an experiment to define simultaneity at A and C which are at rest in this reference frame K.


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Here, they shall be derived from first principles based on a method from [? Only conservation of the material structure is to be carried out, with no attempt being made to integrate or complete the image restoration. Within these parameters approach, can also include the introduction within the image, in portions lost or badly damaged, of an intervention which is in itself blank and of indeterminate colour - what is termed a 'neutral' restoration See for instance Fig.

This approach makes of the work of art an instrument of instruction and learning, a historical document which can be studied and analyzed and the material authenticity of which can be confirmed. Championed by Cavalcaselle in the nineteenth century, this abstention from reintegration of the losses also came to the fore in the twentieth-century, perhaps as a reaction to the excesses of reconstruction and restoration of the intervening years.

The appearances of art, therefore, far from being mere semblances, have the higher reality and the more genuine existence in comparison with the realities of common life. For instance it would be possible in poetical creation to try and proceed by first apprehending the theme to be treated as a prosaic thought, and by then putting it into pictorial ideas, and into rhyme and so forth; so that the pictorial element would simply be hung upon abstract reflections as an ornament or decoration. In his analysis of the role of the restorer and of restoration in general, Brandi used the principles of Gestalt psychology to inform and define the principles of intervention.

A work of art like a gestalt , is more than a sum of its individual components, just as music is a more than a sum of its constituent notes. It is an organized whole whose parts have an intrinsic relationship, and it is these relationships to which we are sensitive - the intervals separating the notes which give them relative values; the organization which makes of notes music rather than a cacophony.

Our perception will also accord such relative values as 'foreground' and 'background'52to elements within the work so that a damaged area, or one which has been left blank or been given a 'neutral' tonality, can leap to the foreground in our mind's eye, relegating the original picture to the status of 'background'.

Brandi sees the restorer's task as inverting this order of things - bringing the original back into the 'foreground', restoring to the work its expressive potential as a work of art, so that it is more than a just historical document to be analyzed in its component parts, for that is not the end of a work of art. In Hegel's words: "For the work of art ought to bring a content before the mind's eye, not in its generality as such, but with this generality made absolutely individual, and sensuously particularized.

If the work of art does not proceed from this principle, but sets in relief the generalized aspect with the purpose of abstract instruction, then the imaginative and sensuous aspect is only an external and superfluous adornment, and the work of art is a thing divided against itself , in which form and content no longer appear as grown in one. Rawlins Aesthetics and Gestalt Nelson, p. Gombrich, Art and Illusion, Phaidon, , p.

The restorer has interpreted what is missing; but that this is an interpretation and not the work of the original artist, that the work is damaged, may not be perceived by the observer The damages incurred may be severe, of considerable size or importance, and involve re-construction of missing areas 'by analogy', or else be wide-spread small losses and wear of the paint surface, the result of the passage of time on the fabric of the paint, which are 'in-painted' , and give the paint an un-aged appearance.

Consciously or unconsciously this is an attempt to turn back the clock, to go back to an 'original' untainted state - the Garden of Eden evoked and invoked by Origen in the opening page of Conti's book. It is an imagined authentic past recreated by the restorer in the present.

Theory of relativity

The damages and ageing inflicted by time on the work are erased - or rather masked - by the restorer's brush. This desire to recreate a lost age in its concrete manifestations, an age which is past and therefore not susceptible to the fluxes and chaos of contemporary events, seems to come to the fore as both Ruskin and Conti point out in times of particular unrest, a form of escapism almost. Because the restorer, like the artist, must "stand[s] within this reflective world and its conditions, and it is impossible for him to abstract from it by will and reserve" 55, restoration cannot but modernize, interpreting according to its own frames of reference, so that these recreations tell us more about the time in which they were carried out than the times and concerns of the original artist.

The 'original' meaning, its power to move us through its material expression across the centuries as a living work, will have been lost. Translation as negotiation. Orion Books, , p. As with paintings, "translation is always a shift , not between two languages but between two cultures A translator must take into account rules that are not strictly linguistic but, broadly speaking, cultural.

Translators, even when trying to give us the flavour of a language and of a historical period, are in fact modernising their source. The restorer has no choice but to focus on the detail. Truth in detail, and truth of the whole: one is description the other evocation. One is the approach of the Pre-Raphaelites and the other of the Impressionists. Fundamentally different world views, one particulate and the other indeterminate, and both necessary for a full description of matter. Ian Marshall and Danah Zohar, , p. Rawlins Aesthetics and the Gestalt , pp.

See also the double-slit experiment on p.

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The same is true for electronic waves. One aspect of it in the use of hands and mind in producing imitations, another aspect the producing of likenesses in the mind alone. Imitation is a meticulous task, and even if carried out with knowledge of the original technique will suffer from the heaviness inherent to the process "for he who imitates the work with much attention will produce a laboured thing" This is as true in restoration as it is in painting: and the dangers of diligence or over diligence so often referred to in texts on art, of not knowing where to stop, are very much present for both the artist and his restorer.

On a small scale, invisibly in-painting a loss in a paint-film is, from an optical point of view, a tautological exercise which does not take into account the mechanism of perception. The 'mind's eye' will automatically compensate for losses, bridge the gap, and 'read' the image as whole, just as the ear will do in music, because both painting and music are organized wholes.

That this is so, was recognized long before the time of gestalt: Gainsborough, writing to a friend, described how in painting just as in music, your eye should be able to predict the next note of the melody And if note or paint is not there, what is missing will be provided by the 'mind's eye' or the 'inner-ear'. See glossary. See also Goya's letter, note 3, Ch. VII, in Conti Woodall, , N.

As in music, so in painting With large areas of loss, we have seen how 'neutral' solutions will float in front of the original Fig. For Apuleius' 'imitative faculty' of the mind to come into action, it is the areas of damage that must first be relegated to the background, so that the expressive potential of the original image is brought to the foreground once more. Neither of the antithetical approaches discussed above do this, in that both are 'stronger' than the original and interfere with or impede this expressive potential.

As mediation between two antitheses, it could not be and cannot be other than a compromise. As with other more individual truly 'neutral' solutions adopted by different restorers over time, which are on analysis immediately distinguishable from the brush of the artist, these solutions at the normal viewing distance for the work in question, allow the work to be observed as a whole, and "to make an impression on the imagination and feeling" 70 of the observer that the original artist intended.

As with all restoration work, the success of this endeavour, cannot be separated from either the manual skill or the sensibility of the restorer. Conti gives a wonderful example of a restoration of a badly damaged Fra Bartolomeo, restored in See figs. The losses are pushed back -visually speaking - so as not to be prominent, and the restorer has provided a reconstruction by the side of the original, stimulating the onlooker's eye as to what is missing in the original work.

At no point is the authenticity either of the material structure in question, nor the 68 To use an analogy from the world of structural conservation, they are like the cradles applied to the reverse of panels which should allow the panel to move, but in fact in many instances distort the original support and can cause it to split and fail, because the intervention of the restorer is stronger than the original 69 Tratteggio is a technique of hatching, either carried out in watercolour or pigments bound with varnish, which is used to integrate losses in a visible but not disturbing way.

Bernard Bosanquet, London, , p. Each observer provides his or her own solution. Reynolds' insights into how Gainsborough's captured 'likeness' and 'truth' in his portraits, eloquently expresses this inter-action between observer and observed which is so fundamental to the visual arts and a quantum vision of reality: "Though this opinion may be considered fanciful At the same time it must be acknowledged there is one evil attending this mode; that if the portrait were seen, previous to any knowledge of the original, different persons would form different ideas " Such solutions imply an acceptance of the relationship which binds the observed the work of art and the individual observer, and of the 'imitative faculty' aspect of human perception.

A decision is made on behalf of the observer.

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XIV, Dec. In fixing one, the other is lost. The fundamental importance of the frame of reference within this new non- mechanical view of the world, when transferred into the field of restoration, brings to the fore the importance for the restorer of having access the sources — not only material but documentary. Having begun this essay with words by Einstein, I should like to end it in the same fashion. But it would be unjust to consider that the new theory destroys the achievements of the old.

The new theory shows the merits as well as the limitations of the old theory, and allow us to regain our old concepts from a higher level To use a comparison, we could say that creating a new theory is not like destroying an old barn and erecting a sky-scraper in its place. It is rather like climbing a mountain, gaining new and wider views, discovering unexpected connections between our starting- point and its rich environment. But the point from which we started out still exists and can be seen, 74 Hegel Introduction to the Philosophy of Fine Art Trans.

Einstein and L. Related Papers.